Solar, Heliospheric and Interplanetary Environment

What SHINE is:

SHINE is an affiliation of researchers within the solar, interplanetary, and heliospheric communities, dedicated to promoting an enhanced understanding of the processes by which energy in the form of magnetic fields and
particles are produced by the Sun and/or accelerated in interplanetary space and on the mechanisms by which these fields and particles are transported to the Earth through the inner heliosphere.

What SHINE does:

SHINE research focuses in particular upon the connection between events and phenomena on the Sun and their relation to solar wind structures in the inner heliosphere. The goal of SHINE activities is to enrich and strengthen both physical understanding and predictive capabilities for these phenomena.

Who is involved:

steering committee that is behind SHINE.


Information on SHINE-sponsored meetings and related gatherings.

Upcoming Meetings



Transportation Information

SHINE workshops are the premier venue for lively scientific exchange between solar and heliospheric physicists, calendrier des eclipses solaires a venir. SHINE workshops are sponsored by NSF, but participation is community-wide. This year the workshop will be held in the magnificent resort of Big Sky, Montana. The main workshop will be held on June 28-July 2. The SHINE student day workshop will be held on Sunday, June 27.

The workshop will convene three working groups on current research topics concerning Solar Sources, Interplanetary Connections, and Solar Energetic Particles. Working group leaders are Nick Arge (AFRL), Mihir Desai (U. of Maryland), Joe Giacalone (U. of Arizona), Tom Metcalf (Lockheed Martin), Simon Plunkett (NRL), and Chuck Smith (U. of New Hampshire).

Plan to attend, YOU WON’T WANT TO MISS THIS ONE! Future announcements will provide instructions for registration, housing, and details of the scientific program. These will also be posted on the SHINE website ( as they become available.

SHINE Steering Committee: Jon Linker (SAIC), Chair; Nat Gopalswamy, (NASA/GSFC), Workshop Coordinator; David Alexander (Rice U.), Joan Burkepile (HAO), Christina Cohen (Caltech), Jim Klimchuk (NRL), Pete Riley (SAIC), Allan Tylka (NRL), and Thomas Zurbuchen (U of Mich).

Download various SHINE 2004 information:

Past Meetings

SHINE 2003 Workshop on Maui

Download SHINE 2003 Meeting Report in MS Word 2000 or PDF format.

This year the workshop will be held on the beautiful Hawaiian island of Maui at the Outrigger Wailea main workshop will be held on July 7-11. The first-ever SHINE student day workshop will be held on Sunday, July 6.

The workshop will convene three working groups on current research topics concerning Solar Sources, Interplanetary Connections, and Solar Energetic Particles. Working group leaders are David Alexander (Lockheed), Nick Arge (U. of Col./CIRES & NOAA/SEC), Christina Cohen (Caltech), Todd Hoeksema (NASA HQ), Tom Holzer (HAO) and Mark Popecki (U of NH).

Applying vector magnetic field data to “real problems”
K.D. Leka

The photosphere and cme initiation

Ion acceleration in flares

Status of the Solar-Terrestrial Research Program & SHINE

Tom Bogdan

AFOSR Space Sciences Investments in Solar Physics

Paul Bellaire

Interplanetary Consequences of SHINE '03 Campaign Events

Ian G. Richardson

SHINE 2003 Summaries

SHINE Steering Committee: Jon Linker (SAIC), Chair; Nat Gopalswamy, (NASA/GSFC), Workshop Coordinator; Joan Burkepile (HAO), Jim Klimchuk (NRL), Sara Martin (Helio Res.), Pete Riley (SAIC), Allan Tylka (NRL), Dave Webb (BC), and Thomas Zurbuchen (U of Mich).

Living With a Star Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop on Solar Energetic Particles

Lanham, Maryland, 20706, July 22-26

SHINE 2002 Summer Workshop

Banff, Alberta, Canada, August 18-22

The workshop was held at the Buffalo Mountain Lodge near beautiful Lake Louise.

Topics addressed at the workshop included CME initiation, complex CMEs, mechanisms of the heliospheric magnetic field reversal, solar-cycle evolution of solar energetic particle (SEP) effects, and possible SEP signatures of interacting CMEs.

Working group leaders were David Alexander (Lockheed), Nick Arge (NOAA/SEC), Christina Cohen (Caltech), Todd Hoeksema (NASA Headquarters), Tom Holzer (HAO) and Mark Popecki (University of New Hampshire). Presentations from SHINE 2002 Summer Workshop.

Working Group 1
SHINE 2001 Summer Workshop

Snowmass, Colorado, June 17-21

The SHINE 2001 Workshop, was held concurrently with the annual CEDAR/GEM meetings in Colorado. The SHINE workshop took place in Snowmass, in a facility adjacent to the GEM conference area.

N. Crooker (Chair), J. Feynman, J. Kunches, J. Linker, J. Luhmann, S. Martin, V. J. Pizzo, J. Steinberg, and D. Webb.

Lake Tahoe, Nevada, June 14-17

Boulder, Colorado, June 14-17

Meeting Summary
Summary of Killer Electron Discussion
Solar Wind 9 Conference

Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, October 5-9, 1998

SW9 Conference
SHINE Splinter Workshop
AAS Space Physics Division Workshop

Bozeman, Montana, June 26, 1997

SHINE Splinter Workshop
SHINE 1997 Workshop

Boulder, Colorado, January 15-18

Boulder, Colorado, June 14-15

Community Tools

A system of predictive tools for forecasting and characterizing solar and interplanetary conditions.

Authors of WWW sites containing potential contributions to our toolbox below are invited to contact the webmaster. (NOTE: Inclusion here does not imply that any screening or review, other than for appropriateness, has been carried out by the SHINE group!)

The current SHINE community tools include:

Directory to latest solar/interplanetary observations
Executive version of the above (for faster access to specific sites)
NRL Space Weather Prediction (Chen etal. L1 magnetic cloud monitor)


An opportunity to advertize works of interest to the SHINE space weather community.

Titles, author list, and on-line “bullet” summaries of papers available in preprint or reprint form may be forwarded to Thomas Zurbuchen for listing here. Please submit all papers that acknowledge SHINE. A click on the link will download the paper in PDF format.

Crooker, N.U., “Solar and heliospheric geoeffective disturbances”, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 62, 1071, 2000.
Gopalswamy, N., “Coronal mass ejection interaction and particle acceleration during the 2001 April 14-15 events,”
Gopalswamy, N., “Coronal and Interplanetary Environment of Large Solar Energetic Particle Events,” 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference, page 3549
Gopalswamy, N., “Large solar energetic particle events of cycle 23: A global view,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol30, no.12, 8015, doi:10.1029/2002GL016435, 2003
Lepri, S.T.; Zurbuchen, T.H.; Fisk, L.A.; Cane, H.V.; Richardson, I.G., “Iron charge state distribution as an identifier of interplanetary coronal mass ejections,” J. Geophys.Res., 106, 29,231, 2001.
McAllister, A. H. ; Martin, S. F. ; Crooker, N. U. ; Lepping, R. P. ; Fitzenreiter, R. J., “A test of real-time prediction of magnetic cloud topology and geomagnetic storm occurrence from solar signatures,” J. Geophys.Res., 106 , 29,185, 2001.
Webb, D.F., E.W. Cliver, N.U. Crooker, O.C. St. Cyr and B.J. Thompson, “Relationship of halo coronal mass ejections, magnetic clouds, and magnetic storms”, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7491, 2000.
Webb, D.F., E.W. Cliver, N. Gopalswamy, H.S. Hudson, and O.C. St. Cyr, “The solar origin of the January 1997 coronal mass ejection, magnetic cloud and geomagnetic storm”, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2469, 1998.
Zhang, M, “The timing of flares associated with the two dynamical types of solar coronal mass ejections,” The Astrophysical Journal, 574:L97–L100, 2002 July 20
Zhang, M, “The dynamical morphologies of flares associated with the two types of solar coribak nass ejections,” The Astrophysical Journal, 595:1251–1258, 2003 October 1
Linker, J.A., Z. Mikic, R. Lionello, P. Riley, T. Amari, and D. Odstrcil, “Flux Cancellation and Coronal Mass Ejections,” Physics of Plasmas, vol 10, #5, 1971-1978, 2003 May
Webb, D.F., Burkepile, J., Forbes, T.G. and Riley, P., “Observational evidence of new current sheets trailing coronal mass ejections”, J. Geophys. Res., vol 108, #A12, 1440, 2003.

Student Opportunities

Opportunities to receive funding for travel expenses.

SHINE 2004 Workshop Travel Grants for Students and Post-Docs

Limited funds are available to support student and post-doc travel
to Big Sky, Montana. To apply, e-mail a brief description of your thesis work and
the name and e-mail address of your thesis advisor to Nat Gopalswamy,
To encourage young people, each year SHINE awards workshop travel grants
to students and post-docs. Recipients since 2000 are listed below.
Application information for the upcoming workshop is posted on the meetings page.

SHINE 2000


Freddy Hansen, California Institute of Technology
Poster Paper: Hansen, J. F., and P. M. Bellan, Controlling the Dynamics
of Laboratory Simulations of Solar Prominence Eruptions
Susan Lepri, University of Michigan
Poster Paper: Lepri, S., T. H. Zurbuchen, A. Reinard, and G. Gloeckler,
Solar Sources of High Ionized Iron
Dibyendu Nandi, Indian Institute of Science
Poster Paper: On the Propagation of CMEs through the Solar Wind
Alysha Reinard, University of Michigan
Poster Paper: Reinard, A. A., S. E. Flanary, T. H. Zurbuchen, L. Fisk,
G. Gloeckler, R. M. Skoug, and C. W. Smith, Conditions Driving
Expansion-type CME Events
Michal Sersen, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
Poster Paper: Soft X-Ray Signatures of Flaring in Quadrupolar Solar
Mayya Tokman, California Institute of Technology
Poster Paper: Tokman, M., P. Bellan, and D. Meiron, Magnetohydrodynamic
Models Using Exponential Propagation Methods

Alejandro Lara, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Poster Paper: Lara, A., and N. Gopalswamy, Transequatorial Changes in
EUV and H-Alpha Emission Associated with the April 29, 1998, CME

SHINE 2001


Tamitha Mulligan, UCLA
Alysha Reinard, University of Michigan
Poster Paper: Reinard, A., T. Zurbuchen, L. Fisk, S. Lepri, et al.,
Comparison Between CME and Slow Solar Wind Composition and Implications
for Potential CME Erosion

Kuniko Hori, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London
Poster Paper: Hori, K., Microwave Observations of Eruptive Features
Alejandro Lara, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Poster Paper: Lara, A., J.A. Gonzalez-Esparza, E. Perez-Tijerina et
al., Numerical Test of the CME Interplanetary Acceleration Model
Marcelo Lopez Fuentes, Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio
Poster Paper: Lopez-Fuentes, M., C.H. Mandrini, P. Demoulin, and L. van
Driel-Gesztelyi, Study of the Evolution of Peculiar Active Regions
Mayya Tokman, California Institute of Technology
Poster Paper: Tokman, M., and P.M. Bellan, Three-Dimensional Structure of CMEs
Seiji Yashiro, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Poster Paper: Yashiro, S., N. Gopalswamy, O.C. St Cyr, et al.,
Development of SOHO/LASCO CME Catalog

SHINE 2002


Curt A. de Koning, U. Delaware
Poster Paper: de Koning, C. A., and J. W. Bieber, Probing the turbulent
solar wind with cosmic rays
David Foster, U. Colorado
Poster Paper: Foster, D. J. Burkepile, G. DeToma, S. Gibson and A.
Stanger, HAO/MLSO Mars IV white light synoptic maps
Lucie Green, U. College London’s Mullard Space Sci Lab
Poster Paper: Green, L.M., M.C. Lopez Fuentes, C.M. Mandrini, P.
Demoulin, L. Van Driel-Gesztelyi and J.L. Culhane, Long term helicity
evolution in AR8100
Noah Heller, The Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA
Poster Paper: Heller, N., A. Bertsch, E.J. Zita, and P. Judge,
Magnetic shadowing: TRACE and SOHO data
Elizabeth Jensen, UCLA
Poster Paper: Jensen, E.A., M.K. Bird, M. Patzold, C.T. Russell, J.P.
Anderson, S.W. Asmor, Initial results of 2Ro south polar magnetic field
from 2002 Cassini conjunction
Justin Kaspar, MIT
Poster Paper: Kasper, J. C., J. D. Richardson, S. Jurac, and A. J.
Lazarus, Comparison of interplanetary shock analysis methods
Susan Lepri, U. Michigan
Poster Paper: Lepri, S.T., and T.H. Zurbuchen, Iron charge state
distribution as an indicator of ICMEs
Ben Lynch, U. Michigan
Poster Paper: Lynch, B. J., Pl J. MacNiece, S. K. Antichos, T. H.
Zurbuchen, and L. A. Fisk, Breakout model “realism:” A comparison to
Elena Moise, U. Arizona
Poster Paper: Moise, E., T. Zurbuchen, K.C. Hsieh, and G. Gloeckler, On
the heliospheric He+ pickup ion acceleration by CME events
Steven Nunes, Catholic U. of America
Ana Rosas, Catholic U. of America
Aniketa Shinde, UCLA
Poster Paper: Shinde, A., and C.T. Russell, Solar wind “deceleration”
as an indication of ICME expansion

Mayya Tokman
Poster Paper: Tokman, M., Numerical model of interacting solar flares

SHINE 2003


Ernesto Aguilar-Rodriquez, NASA Goddard
Tamsen Dunn, UCSD
David Foster, U. Colorado
Elizabeth Jensen, MIT
Christina Lee, Berkeley
Ellen Lee, Harvard
Susan Lepri, U. Michigan
Vyacheslav Lukin
Loraine Lundquist, Berkeley
Ben Lynch, U. Michigan
Evelyn Mervine, Dartmouth
Elena Moise, U. Arizona
Katharine Reeves, U. New Hampshire
Angela Richard, U. Michigan
Ana Rosas, NASA Goddard
Aniketa Shinde, UCLA
Raid Suleiman, Harvard
Linghua Want, Berkeley
Matthew West, NASA

Curt A. de Koning, U. Delaware

Education and Outreach

Materials developed for academic educational purposes and presentation of science to the general public.

Web Space for Kids and Non-Scientists from the University of Michigan Solar-Heliospheric Research Group

Introduction to Windows to the Universe from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

The Sun: Man’s Friend and Foe from Elizabeth Beckett, Holly Bernitt, and Vishwa Chandra

The Virtual Sun from Michiel Berger

Cosmic and Heliospheric Learning Center–Home Page from the cosmic ray group at NASA GSFC

Welcome to the Planets from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology

Virtual Solar System from National Geographic

Solar Center from Stanford University


Web links to various space weather sites.

Suggestions for additions are welcome!

Disclaimer for External Links
“The appearance of external links on this World Wide Web site does not constitute endorsement by the Solar, Heliospheric, and Interplanetary Environment (SHINE) of external web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities SHINE does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this SHINE Web site.”


Correspondence concerning the SHINE pages.

SHINE Chair: Jon Linker

GEM-SHINE liason: Dave Webb

SHINE Workshop Coordinator: Nat Gopalswamy

Web site: Thomas Zurbuchen
Please e-mail Pete Riley to be added to the SHINE e-mail list.


Membership is open to all interested parties, and participation in SHINE by members of the international community is welcomed.

The goals of SHINE parallel those of NSF’s GEM and CEDAR programs, and joint space weather studies are being planned with those organizations. However, since SHINE was initiated after the establishment of the interagency National Space Weather Program, it is not a separate NSF entity and does not draw research support from designated NSF sources. Funding for participants in SHINE activities comes from the range of agency investments in the NSWP through other programs.

Click here to join SHINE’s e-mail list and receive updates on SHINE activities.

All planning for SHINE activities is conducted via a steering committee, which holds regular telecons and meetings throughout the year. During the formative years of SHINE, the committee was composed of individuals motivated toward furthering its stated goals. The organizational structure was loosely modeled along the lines of GEM and CEDAR, and remained highly informal. With the passage of time and the advent of sustained specific funding from NSF, it was recognized by the 2001 Workshop in Snowmass that a more defined SHINE leadership was needed. It was decided that the needs of the SHINE community could be addressed most effectively by a small but flexible organization. Accordingly, a set of guidelines were drawn up and acted upon in the Fall of 2001.
Nominations for steering committee membership were solicited from the community. Because this marked the first official turnover of committee membership and because many of the original members had served for a number of years, six new members were rotated onto the committee. In addition, to ease the transition the former chairman (V J Pizzo) and workshop coordinator (N Crooker) will participate in steering committee deliberations as ex-officio members for one year. In the Fall of 2002, two more new members were inducted.

As of December 2003 the steering committee consists of:

Jon Linker (SAIC), Chair
term expiration 2004

David Alexander
term expiration 2007

Joan Burkepile (HAO)
term expiration 2004

Christina Cohen
term expiration 2007

Nat Gopalswamy (Cath U), Workshop Coordinator
term expiration 2004

Jim Klimchuk (NRL)
term expiration 2004

Pete Riley (SAIC)
term expiration 2004

Allan Tylka (NRL)
term expiration 2004

Thomas Zurbuchen, WWW/Communications Coordinator
term expiration 2004


Opportunities for funding.

SHINE is an affiliation of researchers within the solar and heliospheric
communities, dedicated to promoting enhanced understanding of and
predictive capabilities for solar disturbances that propagate to Earth. As a
community-based group supporting Space Weather research, it is allied with
the older GEM and CEDAR programs within the National Science Foundation
(NSF), which support space weather research in magnetosphere physics and in
aeronomy and the upper atmosphere, respectively.

In 2001 the Solar Terrestrial Research Program of NSF’s Division of
Atmospheric Sciences began to solicit proposals in support of the research
activities of SHINE. Proposals must meet the standards for intellectual
merit and programmatic relevance of the NSF Solar Terrestrial Research
Program. The broader impact of submitted proposals will be evaluated in
consideration of the relation of the proposed activity to the goals and
objectives of SHINE, and the likelihood that the work will contribute
directly to the interactive process at SHINE workshops.

SHINE fosters research on the processes by which energy in the form of
magnetic fields and particles are produced by the Sun and/or accelerated
in interplanetary space and on the mechanisms by which these fields and
particles are transported to the Earth through the inner heliosphere.
SHINE research in particular focuses upon the connection between events and
phenomena on the Sun and their relation to solar wind structures in the
inner heliosphere. The goal of the research is to enhance both physical
understanding as well as predictive capabilities. Major topics under study
by SHINE include variations in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic
field and plasma structure, coronal mass ejection genesis, initiation, and
propagation, and the production and propagation of solar energetic
particles. Proposals exemplifying a broad diversity of approaches are
encouraged, but the relationship of the research to the SHINE goals should
be made clear.

Further details about the NSF SHINE program solicitation can be found at
this URL:



Annual Solicitation for Research in Support of the National Space Weather Program (NSWP):

Campaign Events

SHINE Campaign Events Studies

SHINE is encouraging detailed studies of selected events in the form of Campaigns to advance this research. The overarching theme of the Campaign Events program is to improve our understanding of the coronal mass ejection (CME) process as well as the coronal and solar wind context in which they occur. Three general questions that the Campaigns address are:

How are CMEs initiated?
How do they evolve or propagate?
How are solar energetic particles accelerated and transported?
The general approach is to bring as much data and interpretation as possible to bear on a given event to allow detailed comparisons between the data and (competing) models and thus guide their development and improvement.

Four events or event periods were selected before the SHINE 2003 Workshop, and four leaders assigned to guide the work on each event. These events were chosen because they occurred since the start of the SOHO era in 1996, and have reasonably complete data on both the solar source regions and the propagation of the CME through the low corona into the heliosphere. The events with their leaders are:

May 12, 1997 Nick Arge Contact e-mail:
May 1, 1998 Brian Welsch Contact e-mail: (including late April and early May event series)
April 21, 2002 Allan Tylka and David Alexander: Contact e-mail: (including earlier activity from same active region)
August 24, 2002 Allan Tylka and David Alexander: Contact e-mail: (including earlier activity from same active region)
A website has been established for aiding researchers in these studies, in particular for depositing pertinent data and for exchange of models and simulations and general discussions involving these events and the science questions: If you wish to become involved with one or more of these events, please contact the appropriate Event Leader. Each leader will maintain an up-to-date e-mail address list for communication with the members of his Event study group. We encourage your prompt response so that significant progress can be made on these events before the SHINE 2004 Workshop, June 27-July 1.

Printing Instructions

Here are some instructions on how to print pages with dark backgrounds so that you don’t have to waste lots of ink printing the background.

  1. Click on the “file” menu of your web browser and select “save as.”
  2. A “save as” box will pop up. Under the “format” field in this box, choose “text,” and then click the “save” button. Save the file to your
    desktop (or to a place where you will be able to find it.)
  3. Open the saved file. It will open as a black words on a grey background, and will print as black words on a white background.
  4. Print the file!

This process also saves the page (as a text file) to your computer, so you can access it again later.